Additional Theories

The following section includes a variety of references. Many of these references, although non-committal, offer well rounded and well researched histories on the Old Stone Mill. Other references in this section offer origin theories of the Old Stone Mill which are quite different from the two accepted main theories, yet they are equally as interesting. Also included in this section are lighter references on the subject of the Old Stone Mill. These references encompass personal reflections, memoires, and social comments.



Allen, F. J. "The Ruined Mill, or Round Church of the Norsemen." Cambridge Antiquarian Society's Communications 22, (1921): 90-107.


Archambault, Florence. A Selection of Historical and Social Articles Pertaining to Newport, Rhode Island. Newport: Historic Newport Publishers, 1997.


Blaine, Joseph W. "Some Notes on Newport's Old Stone Mill." Unpublished manuscript at the Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI, April, 1979.


Bronsted, Johannes. "Norsemen in North America before Columbus." Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution (1953): 367-401.


Brown, Howard. "Viking Hoaxes in North America." Newport History: Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society no. 178 (Spring 1980): 79-80. *A review of Jeffrey R. Redmond's book.


Cahoone, Sarah S. Historical Sketches of Newport & Its Vicinity. New York: John S. Taylor, 1842. *First published in 1840 by Taylor and Dodd as Visit to Grand-papa, or A Week in Newport.


Channing, George G. Early Recollections of Newport, R. I., 270-271. Newport: A. J. Ward, Charles E. Hammett, Jr., 1868.


Clarke, Charles H. The Old Stone Mill. Newport: Milne Printery, 1910.


Conant, Kenneth J. "Newport Tower or Mill." Rhode Island History 7, no. 1 (January 1948): 2-7. *Refer to Holand, Hjalmar R. America 1355-1364, 3-132. New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1946., and Means, Philip Ainsworth. Newport Tower. New York: Holt, 1942. Conant offers 13 reasons why the authors’ arguments in these two works are faulty. Holand is listed in the Norse Theory section, and Means is listed in the Additional Theories section (below).


---------- "Correction." Rhode Island History 7, no. 4 (October 1948): 125. *Conant issues a correction to his article "Newport Tower or Mill." Rhode Island History 7, no.1, 2-7. Paragraph no. 13, p. 6 should read "Southwest of Narragansett Bay."


da Silva, Manuel Luciano. "Portuguese Tower of Newport." In Portuguese Pilgrims & Dighton Rock, 74-78. Bristol, RI: [s. n.], 1971. This chapter is reprinted beginning on page 20.


"From the Past." &c., newsletter of Redwood Library, vol. 3, no.1 (Fall 1997): 8.


Haley, John Williams. The Old Stone Bank History of Rhode Island 3, 11-13. Providence: Providence Institution for Savings, 1939.


Hammett, Charles E., Jr. The Controversy Touching the Old Stone Mill in the Town of Newport, R. I. Newport: Mason & Pratt, 1851. *An exchange of letters printed in the Newport and Providence papers in the 19th century. Includes Appendix A (Benedict Arnold’s Will) and Appendix B (Edward Pelham’s Will).


Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Oldport Days. Boston: James R. Osgood & Co., 1873. *A brief reference to the Tower can be found on page 13 and a photo of the Tower covered in ivy on the front-plate.


Heweth, Lida. "The Old Mill at Newport." American Monthly Magazine 5 (1894): 1-5.


Irwin, Rochester. "Newport's Tower of Mystery." Travel Magazine (July, 1927): 23, 46.


"Landmark Revisited: The Old Stone Mill." Newport History: Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society 40, no. 2 (1967): 69-83.


"Legend of the Newport Tower." Yankee (March 1954): 24-35.


Lippincott, Bertram. Indians, Privateers, and High Society, 15-18. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1961.


Mason, George Champlin. Newport Illustrated, 59-60. New York: D. Appleton, 1854.


Means, Philip Ainsworth. Newport Tower. New York: Holt, 1942.


Miller, Alan Clark. "The Origins of the Newport Tower." Connecticut Review 2 (October 1968): 70-77.


Morgan, Richard. "Who Built the Old Newport Tower?" Mysterious New England. Dublin, N.H., Yankee Inc, 1971: 266-279.


O'Loughlin, Kathleen. Newport Tower. Ontario, Canada, 1948. *O'Loughlin offers the theory that the Old Stone Mill was built by Madoc ap Owain Gwynedd from North Wales in 1170.


O'Neill, John J. "Round Tower Enigma: Newport's Mystery Grows as Research Progresses," Herald Tribune, 24 July 1941.


Peirce, C. S. "The Old Stone Mill at Newport." Science 4 (1884): 512-514.


Pell, Herbert C. "The Old Stone Mill, Newport." Rhode Island History 7, no. 4 (October 1948): 105-119. *Pell theorizes that the Tower was built by shipwrecked Portuguese sailors led by Miguel Corte Real.


---------- "An Answer to the Norse Theory." Rhode Island History 12, no. 4 (October 1953): 120-122. *A response to Hjalmar Holand's "The Newport Tower Mystery II." Rhode Island History 12, no. 3 (July 1953): 83-89.

Plowden's New Albion Petition to King Charles I in 1632. Collections of New-York Historical Society, 1869. *This is a British public document written in 1632. Many scholars theorize that the mention of a round stone tower in this document is proof of the Old Stone Mill's existence before 1640. The item in the collection of the New-York Historical Society is an 1869 copy.


Quinn, Mary T. "A Query Concerning the Old Stone Mill at Newport." Rhode Island History 14, no. 1 (January 1955): 20-21.


Redmond, Jeffrey R. Viking Hoaxes in North America. New York: Carlton Press, 1977.


Rider, Sidney S. "The Real History of 'My Stone Built Windmill.'" Book Notes (Providence, R. I.) 31 (1914): 137-142.


Sears, Robert S. "The Ancient Tower of Newport, Rhode Island." Potter's American Monthly 5 (1875): 753-754.


Silliman, Horace F. "The Newport Tower: The English Elizabethan Solution." New England Antiquities Research Association Journal Special Publication, 1979.


---------- "Mary Stuart's Possible Connection with the Newport Tower." New England Antiquities Research Association Journal 15, no. 4, issue no. 58 (Spring 1981): 106-107.


Simister, Florence Parker. Streets of the City of Newport, 91-94. Providence: Mowbray Company, 1969.


Sinclair, Andrew. The Sword and the Grail: Of the Grail and Templars and a True Discovery of America, 140, 144-147, 150. New York: Crown Publishers, 1992. *Sinclair discusses the history of the discovery of America and revelations of the origins of Masons. Several references are made to the Old Stone Mill and the belief that it was constructed as a Templar Church.


Swain, Bradford F. "New Light on Newport Tower." Rhode Island History 5, no. 2 (April 1946): 57. *A review of Frederick J. Pohl's "Was the Newport Tower Standing in 1632?" New England Quarterly 18, no. 4 (December 1945): 501-506, listed in the Norse Theory section.


---------- "More Light on the Old Stone Mill." Rhode Island History 5, no. 3 (July 1946): 82.


"The Old Mill at Newport: A New Study of an Old Puzzle." Scribner's 17 (1879): 632-641.


"The Old Stone Mill in Perspective." Newport History: Journal of the Newport Historical Society 68, part 2, no. 235 (1997): 98-107. *An illustrated look at the Old Stone Mill.


Tiffany, Osmond. "Old Newport." Cosmopolitan 15 (1893): 672-73. *Includes a photograph and a brief mention of the Stone Tower. Reprinted in Florence Archambault's A Selection of Historical and Social Articles Pertaining to Newport, Rhode Island. See the Additional Theories section, page 10.


Von Hagen, Victor Wolfgang. Frederick Catherwood Architect, 46-47. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950. *Includes a discussion of how Catherwood's original drawings of the Old Stone Mill and the reproductions in Rafn's works were misrepresentative. (Rafn had reproduced Catherwood's originals.)


Whittal, James P. "Stone Tower Theory Raises Questions," Newport Daily News, 19 February 1996: A7. *Whittal theorizes that the Old Stone Mill was constructed as a Norman Templar Church.


Wolfe, Carl G. "Possible Visits to America before Columbus by Europeans." 8 August 1980. Unpublished manuscript at the Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI.