Norse Theory

The following references support a Norse origin of Newport's Old Stone Mill:

 


 

Allen, David B. "The Newport Tower: A New Dialogue." New England Antiquities Research Association Journal, 15, no. 4 (Spring 1981): 103-106. 

 

Anderson, Rasmus B. America Not Discovered by Columbus. Chicago, Griggs & Co.,1874. 

 

Boland, Charles Michael. They All Discovered America. New York: Doubleday, 1961. 

 

Davis, Asahel. Antiquities of America. Boston, 1848. 

 

Enterline, James Robert. Viking America: The Norse Crossings and Their Legacy, 151, 154. New York: Doubleday, 1972. 

 

Fell, Barry. Saga America, 373-376. New York: Times Books, 1980. 

 

Flifett, Thorleif. "A Layman Looks at Newport Tower." Nordisk Tidenede, 14 May 1949.  Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI. 

 

Hatfield, R.G. "The Old Mill at Newport, A New Study of an Old Puzzle." Scribner's Monthly 17 (March 1879): 632-641. 

 

Hedgcorth, William D. "Longfellow Poem Suggests Origin of the Stone Tower." Newport Daily News, 2 March 1996. 

 

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. "The Visit of the Vikings." Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (September 1882): 515-528. 

 

Holand, Hjalmar R. America 1355-1364, 3-132. New York: Duell, Sloan, & Pearce, 1946.

---------- "The Origin of the Newport Tower." Rhode Island History 7, no. 3 (July 1948): 65-73.  *Holand's article is a response to Kenneth Conant's article, "Newport Tower or Mill." Rhode Island History 5 (January 1948). Refer to Kenneth Conant in the Additional Theories section. 

---------- "The Newport Tower: Norse or English? The Measurements Give the Answer." The American Scandinavian Review (Autumn 1949): 230-236. 

---------- "The Newport Mystery." Rhode Island History 12, no. 2 (April 1953): 55-62. 

---------- "The Newport Mystery II." Rhode Island History 12, no. 3 (July, 1953): 83-89. 

 

Lawton, Herbert A. Historic Newport, 11-13. Newport Chamber of Commerce, 1933. 

 

Limmer, Edward F. "The Old Stone Mill of Newport, R. I., A New Perspective." Aug. 27 1986. Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI. 

 

Lossing, Benson J. The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution. Vol. 2, 65-67. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851-1852.  *The title page states that the volumes have "several hundred engravings on wood, by Lossing and [William] Barritt, chiefly from original sketches by the author." Click here to see engraving.

 

Mallery, Arlington H. Special Interim Report of an Examination of the Newport Tower and its Previous History, October 1955. Unpublished report in the Newport Historical Society Library, Special Collections, Newport, RI. 

---------- "The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America: A Reply to W. S. Godfrey." American Anthropologist 60, no. 1 (February 1958): 141-151. 

 

Pantalone, John. "Our Mystery Tower," Newport This Week, 28 April 1994: 10. 

 

Penhallow, William S. and Michael J. Brennan. "Archaeoastronomy of the Old Stone Tower," 1991. Manuscript on file at the Newport Historical Society. Published by the Department of Physics, University of Rhode Island, Kingston. 

 

Perry, J. Tavenor. "The Scandinavian Tower of Newport, R. I., USA." Antiquary 9 (1913): 463-465. 

 

Phelan, Nick. "Group Adds New Grist to Old Mill: Astronomers Say Newport's Old Mill Pre-dates Colonial Times," Newport Daily News, 2 April 1993, sec. A1, 8. 

 

Pohl, Frederick J. "Was the Newport Tower Standing in 1632?" New England Quarterly 18 (December 1945): 501-506. 

---------- "Communication." New England Quarterly 19 (June 1946): 283-285. 

---------- "A Key to the Problem of the Newport Tower." Rhode Island History 7, no. 3 (July 1948): 75-83. 

---------- "The Newport Tower: An Answer to Mr. Godfrey." Archaeology 3 (Autumn 1950): 183-184. *Refer to William Godfrey's articles in Archaeology (1949, 1950) listed in the Colonial/Arnold Theory section. 

---------- "Plaster under the Newport Tower." American Antiquity 19, no. 3 (January 1954): 275-277. *Refer to William Godfrey, "Answer to Plaster under the Newport Tower,"American Antiquity 19, no. 3 (January 1954); 275-279, listed in the Colonial/Arnold Theory section. 

---------- The Viking Settlements of North America, 316-317. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1972. 

 

Prytz, Kåre. Westward before Columbus. Oslo: Norsk Maritimt Forlag, 1990.

 

Rafn, Charles C. "Account of an Ancient Structure in Newport, Rhode Island, the Vinland of the Scandinavians." In Supplement to the Antiquitates Americanae (re-issue of the 1839 volume), 1-10, Copenhagen, 1841. 

---------- "Astronomical Evidence for the Site of the Chief Settlement of the Ancient Scandinavians in America." In Mémoires de la Société Royale des Antiquaries du Nord, 128-131. Copenhagen, 1840-1844. 

 

Richardson, Edward A. "The Builder of the Newport (Rhode Island) Tower." Journal of the Surveying and Mapping Division Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers 86, no. 2383, SU1 (February 1960): 73-95. 

 

Webb, Thomas H. "Account of an Ancient Structure in Newport, Rhode Island, the Vinland of the Scandinavians." In Supplement to the Antiquitates Americanae. Copenhagen, 1839. *Communicated by Thomas H. Webb, MD, in letters to Prof. C. C. Rafn; with remarks by Rafn, Boston, 22 May 1839. This supplement contains engravings from Frederick Catherwood's drawings of the Tower.

 

Wick, Barthinus L. Did the Norsemen Erect the Newport Round Tower? Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press, 1911.